SSMJ November 2021
In early October 2021 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of the first-ever malaria vaccine for children aged under 5 in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission - this is welcome news in South Sudan.
As an avid reader since 2008 of the South Sudan Medical Journal, always interested in the reports, reviews and research papers, I am delighted to have the opportunity to express, on behalf of the readership, our gratitude to the Editor-in-Chief, Editors and Associate Editors, Editorial Adviser and Assistants, and the Production Team for consistently in every quarterly issue, presenting a breadth of medical educational material.
News, Reports and Policy
South Sudan confirmed the first case of COVID-19 on 5 April 2020. Since then, the country has experienced two waves. By the 42nd epidemiological week only 247,059 samples were tested and 12,293 cases confirmed with a positivity of 5%. South Sudan is still on alert despite a decrease in confirmed cases for six consecutive weeks as of 28 October 2021.
On 15th April 2021, a group of South Sudanese clinicians and academics met in Juba South Sudan. They identified the need for organized Research in South Sudan and agreed to form a Health and Social Sciences Research Institute of South Sudan (HSSRI-SS).
The South Sudan Orthopaedics and Trauma Society (SOTS) was officially launched on the 28th of August 2021. The event brought together many stakeholders involved in the field of orthopaedics and trauma. In attendance were the Undersecretary in the Ministry of Health, representatives from professional medical associations, NGOs active in orthopaedics and trauma, and health insurance and pharmaceutical companies.
A new university with a modern outlook is established in South Sudan
Streptomycin is one of the oldest effective medications for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB). It is also relatively inexpensive.
On the night of 25th October 2021 at the Kitwe Teaching Hospital in Zambia, South Sudan lost one of its pioneering medical professionals in the late Dr Marsyano Jada Muludyang.
Malaria vaccine Infographic from World Health Organization
Neuroscience is one of the most poorly addressed fields of study in Africa evidenced by the paucity of available data. Africa has a lot to do to improve neuroscience research. More government financing is needed if the continent’s research sector is to continue to expand. International scientific collaborations are an important part of integrating into the global research community. African neuroscientists must also participate in policy and decision-making to urge governments to finance research into Africa’s specific requirements.
Tobacco use is a serious public health problem with smoking as the most common method of consuming tobacco. It is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of tobacco smoking varies from country to country. It creates a huge economic burden on the individuals who consume it and on the healthcare system. The current approach toward the management of tobacco smoking addiction revolves around a combination of education, counselling, and pharmacotherapy.
In South Sudan, health facility delivery coverage is very low despite the presence of health facilities with staff that can conduct deliveries. Some factors like inaccessibility, insecurity, low knowledge of benefits of health facility delivery, poor services, financial challenges, family influence and cultural practices might be some of the reasons that prevent some mothers from delivering in the health facilities.
This paper describes how UNICEF with other partners has started training master trainers with Basic Emergency Obstetrics and New Born Care modules in Greater Upper Nile, and includes a case of one mother who benefited from the training.
Women with higher gestational age and gestational diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of delivering a baby with macrosomia at Iringa Regional Referral Hospital. An early plan for the mode of delivery, such as labour induction, will aid the prevention of advanced gestational age. Ensuring a healthy diet and physical exercises in our communities will help to reduce diabetes mellitus and hence fetal macrosomia.
Globally about 463 million people are living with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 80% are in middle and low-income countries. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the number of diabetes patients will rise to 700 million by 2045. Almost half of adult type-2 diabetes patients are unaware they have this disease and 185.8 million undiagnosed diabetics are in middle-income countries. Worldwide every 30 seconds, a lower limb is lost because of diabetes. The incidence of DFU amongst those with DM is 2% (9.26 million) but the risk of recurrence for those with a history of DFU increases to 17–60% over the following three years.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) toxicity is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is estimated that poisoning contributes to more than 1 million poisonings and up to half a million deaths each year, yet it is preventable and treatable.
Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide.
However, studies concerning poisoning in Botswana are scant, although it has been reported that poisoning contributes 6.7% of the total injuries and is ranked third next to falls and automobile accidents among external causes of mortality. This case report reviews the aetiology, evaluation, and treatment of acetaminophen overdose.
In February 2008 Dr Eluzai Abe Hakim launched the Southern Sudan Medical Bulletin which has evolved into the quarterly 24-page free online journal, the South Sudan Medical Journal (SSMJ), the only medical journal in South Sudan. The Editor-in-Chief is Dr Edward Eremugo Kenyi. There are three Trustees who oversee our limited funds.