Obituary: Gideon Wurube Kara

The medical fraternity in South Sudan has lost many of its own members in the last three months. SSMJ presents the obituaries of some of them.

Obituary: Dr Asia Dawud Kuek

Dr Asia Dawud Kuek Kuol Ajak died in Kampala Uganda on 17 January 2024 following a long battle with breast cancer.

Obituary: Dr Lou Joseph Bosco

Dr Lou Joseph Bosco died on 19 January, 2024 in Kampala, Uganda. Born on 5 July 1986, Dr Lou hailed from the Leri Pasobe Clan, Nyargang Boma of Kansuk Nyepo Payam in Kajokeji County.

Advertise in the South Sudan Medical Journal

Advertise in the South Sudan Medical Journal

Salisbury Sudan Medical Link visit to Western Equatoria

Since 1972, the Salisbury Diocese has been linked with the Episcopal Church of Sudan, and since 2011 with the Episcopal Church of Sudan and South Sudan (ECSS). It is one of the oldest Diocesan Links set up by the then Bishop of Salisbury George Reindorp and his colleagues in Sudan.

Obituary: Sister Petronella Wawa – the visionary and mentor

“Her death is a loss to the nurses and midwives and the entire health fraternity. A great loss to our delivering mothers and newborns. South Sudan has lost a leader,”

WHO urges immediate skin to skin contact for babies born prematurely

May 2023. WHO has launched new guidelines to improve survival and health outcomes for babies born early (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or small (under 2.5kg at birth). The guidelines advise that skin to skin contact with a caregiver should start immediately after birth.

Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF) Grants for Postgraduate Studies

At the last annual meeting of the Executive Committee of the GMCTF a number of grant awards were made to eligible South Sudanese and Sudanese applicants. There were 120 applications for grants from both South Sudan and Sudan; 34 were short listed for consideration and 19 grants were awarded.

East Central Southern Africa College of Physicians (ECSACOP)

East Central Southern Africa College of Physicians (ECSACOP) is a regional college comprising Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The main purpose of the College is to address the shortage of physicians in the region.

Join The South Sudan Medical Journal Editorial Team

SSMJ, the only medical journal in South Sudan, is free online and published quarterly by the Health and Social Science Research Institute of South Sudan (HSSRI-SS). SSMJ is looking for volunteers, with an interest in health care in South Sudan,

Obituary: Dr Gatkuoth Khatir Lamba Takh

South Sudan has lost another young medical doctor with a future in front of him, Dr Gatkuoth Khatir Lamba Takh, who died of a cardiac arrest on 6 November 2022 in the South Sudanese capital, Juba.

Tribute to Our Friend, Brother and Colleague Dr Frederick Khamis Tawad

We are profoundly devastated and saddened by the untimely passing on of our friend, brother and colleague Dr Frederick Khamis in Nairobi, Kenya on 14th May 2022.

Poster: WHO Recovering from monkeypox at home

WHO poster on recovering from monkeypox at home

ADVERT: Specialist job opportunities at the Juba Medical Complex

Specialist job opportunities at the Juba Medical Complex

Snakebite cases on the rise as antivenom runs out in Warrap

Snakebite cases on the rise as antivenom runs out in Warrap

Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF)

Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF)

Daily confirmed and cumulative COVID-19 deaths.

The graphs show South Sudan daily confirmed and cumulative COVID-19 deaths.

Appeal to support the Al Sabah Children’s Hospital Resource Centre, Juba, South Sudan

Dr Justin Tongun, Consultant Paediatrician and Senior Lecturer in Paediatrics at the University of Juba Medical School would like to make an appeal for assistance, preferably in kind, to furnish the Al Sabah Resource Centre.

South University of Medicine, Science and Technology

A new university with a modern outlook is established in South Sudan

Use of antigen rapid diagnostic tests to gauge the level of COVID-19 infections in South Sudan

South Sudan confirmed the first case of COVID-19 on 5 April 2020. Since then, the country has experienced two waves. By the 42nd epidemiological week only 247,059 samples were tested and 12,293 cases confirmed with a positivity of 5%. South Sudan is still on alert despite a decrease in confirmed cases for six consecutive weeks as of 28 October 2021.

A Health and Social Sciences Research Institute established in South Sudan

On 15th April 2021, a group of South Sudanese clinicians and academics met in Juba South Sudan. They identified the need for organized Research in South Sudan and agreed to form a Health and Social Sciences Research Institute of South Sudan (HSSRI-SS).

Letter to the Editor

Streptomycin is one of the oldest effective medications for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB). It is also relatively inexpensive.

Malaria Vaccine Infographic from World Health Organization

Malaria vaccine Infographic from World Health Organization

Dr Marsyano Jada Muludyang

On the night of 25th October 2021 at the Kitwe Teaching Hospital in Zambia, South Sudan lost one of its pioneering medical professionals in the late Dr Marsyano Jada Muludyang.

Launch of the South Sudan Orthopaedics and Trauma Society

The South Sudan Orthopaedics and Trauma Society (SOTS) was officially launched on the 28th of August 2021. The event brought together many stakeholders involved in the field of orthopaedics and trauma. In attendance were the Undersecretary in the Ministry of Health, representatives from professional medical associations, NGOs active in orthopaedics and trauma, and health insurance and pharmaceutical companies.

In memoriam: Dr Richard Oleko passes on

Everyone who knew or met Richard will remember his jolliness, brilliance, allure, and dedication to making his country and the world a safe place, free of diseases that continue to maim humanity.

Obituary: Professor James Gita Hakim

The world renowned South Sudanese academician, cardiologist and HIV researcher Professor James Gita Hakim died on January 26th, 2021 in Harare, Zimbabwe, from COVID-19 related complications. Professor Hakim was a member of the South Sudan Medical Journal’s Editorial Board and a long-standing supporter of the journal.

Obituary: Dr. Elsa Bojo Paulino Loggale

Dr. Elsa was a mother, a colleague, and partner in eye care; she held a lot of promise to our effort to advance eye care in South Sudan. Her death has robbed South Sudan of a brilliant, focused, and forward-looking medical professional who would have contributed immensely to the improvement of health care in the country.

Successful treatment of a 5-year-old with burns through the Provision of Essential Health Services Project, Ulang, South Sudan

Nyaduoth Jock was a 5-year-old girl living in the village of Pare in the Western part of Yomding Payam, 20 kilometres from Ulang County, Upper Nile State. Pare village has a population of about 1500 and most earn a living mainly by farming and cattle rearing. Pare community accesses its health services at Rupboard Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) seven kilometres away.

Letter: Training in malaria microscopy and South Sudan’s first malaria slide bank

Letter to the Editor: Training in malaria microscopy and South Sudan’s first malaria slide bank

CDC Algorithm for the management of malaria

CDC Algorithm for the management of malaria

UNOCHA South Sudan Floods

UNOCHA South Sudan Floods Maps

Local staff are key to psychosocial support in South Sudan

Restoring support structures and creating awareness around positive coping mechanisms can be all the support some people need to maintain mental and psychosocial well-being. Care Groups, parenting support, and cultural activities can have a profound impact on helping a community recover from shock.

South Sudanese recipients of grants from the Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF) in 2020

The Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF) founded in July 1899 supports the education of Sudanese and South Sudanese doctors and each year gives awards to a number of individuals and institutions.

Public health impacts and responses to floods

A flood, as defined by Merriam-Webster, is “a rising and overflowing of a body of water especially onto normally dry land”. Flooding can occur when a river, lake or any body of water overflows its boundaries, or when heavy rains lead to accumulation of water in an already saturated area with no escape channels. These waters can rise quickly and rapidly – as in flash floods – or rise slowly over a long period of time. Floods can be local, impacting a small community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and regions.


According to the World Malaria Report 2019, an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2018, with 93% in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region. In 2018 there were an estimated 405 000 deaths from malaria globally, compared with 416 000 in 2017, and 585 000 in 2010.

Continuum of care for acute malnutrition

The 60th issue (July 2019) of the Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) publication, Field Exchange (FEX), is dedicated to the ‘Continuum of Care (CoC)’ of children with acute malnutrition and includes a special editorial as well as three items on work in South Sudan.

South Sudanese Recipients of Grants from the Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF) in 2019

The Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund supports education of Sudanese and South Sudanese, and each year gives awards to a number of individuals and institutions. The website gives further details. GMCTF supports education in a number of ways; among other things, support has been given in recent years to a number of individuals from South Sudan to help with medical training.

Public Health Resources

Resources from around the web on public health

Gunshot injuries remain high despite peace deal

Juba (ICRC) - The number of patients admitted to International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)-supported surgical units in South Sudan with injuries from violence remains high ten months after the signing of a peace agreement.

Point Of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) is saving lives

The use of the point-of-care ultrasound is saving lives after its implementation in MSF’s hospital in Agok

Martha Primary Health Care Centre: how resilience and international collaboration is transforming a community

Martha PHCC developed thanks to a very generous grant from Irish Aid and it continuous to grow

Juba College of Nursing and Midwifery milestones in 2018

So far the school has graduated over 304 students who are serving the country and supporting the continued reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality

Obituary - Dr Joy Theophilus and Dr Emmanuel Kenyi

The South Sudanese medical fraternity lost two great colleagues within a short time of each other in April, 2019

The Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes

The Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO): Does hormonal contraception increase the risk of acquiring HIV?

10 steps to successful breastfeeding.

10 steps to successful breastfeeding. WHO and UNICEF

Letter to the editor

What South Sudan must do to reduce high maternal and infant deaths: increase health and social sector budgets by at least 30%

Dr Felix: the doctor who served with passion

Dr Felix Loro was diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin’s Lypmphoma in 2014, which claimed his life on Saturday 12 January 2019 in Kampala, Uganda. Dr Felix was married to Mrs Maria Ejok Kanisio from Hiyala, Torit State. They were blessed with two children – a son and a daughter. His passion for his country had inspired individuals, for whom he served as a mentor and role model. He will be greatly missed.

Call for Submissions

Wau Health Sciences Institute graduates 16 students from the School of Midwifery

Among the students were 10 females and 6 males. According to the school principal, this is the first batch of diploma students since the establishment of the institute. Jane Edward, the principal said the new graduates are tasked with helping expectant women in hospitals to reduce maternal mortality rates in the country.

My experience as an international student at the Southern Medical University in China

My name is Panom Puok Duoth Kier. I was born in Nasir County, Upper Nile State, Republic of South Sudan. I graduated from Mekelle University School of Public Health with a Bachelor Degree in Public Health in 2009, and have a diploma in Public Health Nursing from Haramaya University, Ethiopia. I have experience in Public Health and Clinical Medicine in government and non-governmental organizations in South Sudan and Ethiopia

Proceedings of the Bentiu International Health Symposium

The Bentiu Health Symposium was an interactive forum to share knowledge; stimulate and exchange ideas, and identify what efforts are needed to address the crisis. The symposium highlighted the importance of collective experience in a situation where published health surveillance data are scarce or incomplete. The participants agreed that it was necessary to understand the local situation, constraints and difficulties in order to identify what can be done next. The following sections provide an overview of the topics presented and the issues that were discussed.

ELSSA = Essential Life Saving Skills for Africa 

LSSA, a Northern Ireland based charity, provides Essential Obstetric (Mother) and Newborn Care (EONC) training courses for doctors, midwives and clinical officers to address these conditions. All our facilitators are experienced midwives or consultant obstetricians, and are volunteers. We use evidence based ‘skills and drills’ training specifically developed for Africa.

Improving maternal and child health through media in South Sudan: final evaluation

This report presents a synthesis of all research and analysis completed under this project. In brief, it finds that the challenging country context (e.g. the limited availability of quality healthcare nationally and the ongoing humanitarian crisis) limited the extent to which the project was able to contribute to improved health outcomes.

World Breastfeeding Week 1-7 August 2018

The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) coordinates the annual World Breastfeeding Week campaign, working closely with many organisations and individuals. In a world filled with inequality, crises and poverty, breastfeeding is the foundation of lifelong good health for babies and mothers. The slogan of World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) 2018 is Breastfeeding: Foundation of Life.

Samaritan’s Purse in South Sudan

Samaritan’s Purse began working in southern Sudan in 1997, before South Sudan gained its independence in 2011. Samaritan’s Purse provides emergency relief support to internally displaced people (IDPs), refugees, and returnees across the country. The organization’s multi-sector response includes agricultural training, food assistance, health services, nutrition interventions, and water, sanitation & hygiene (WASH) programming. Samaritan’s Purse has four main areas of operation in the Greater Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile regions of the country.

IndiKit An online guide to SMART indicators for Relief and Development Projects

Obituary: Dr Festo Jambo Elias Kayanga

Dr Festo Jambo is among the latest crop of South Sudanese obstetricians who emerged through the struggle of the 1980s and 1990s to serve in the field when few doctors existed.

SSMJ Updated Guidelines for Authors

The South Sudan Medical Journal (SSMJ), the only medical journal in South Sudan, welcomes submissions of articles from you. We publish original research, reviews, survey reports/KAP studies, discussions and commentaries as well as case studies and presentations, and letters to the Editor.

Care Groups in Emergencies in Unity State, South Sudan

Care Groups aim to promote behaviour change in order improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and are usually one component (together with feeding programmes, food security and WASH interventions, etc.) in nutrition and health interventions. This summary describes the adaption of the Care Group model in an acute emergency situation in Unity State.

Small Baby Series

The Small Baby Series are 27 short teaching videos demonstrate life-saving practices such as how to keep premature babies warm with skin-to-skin care, and how to feed them with a cup or feeding tube before they’re strong enough to breastfeed. The series also includes five videos designed specifically for mothers to demystify the needs of premature infants and help them care for their babies both in the hospital and at home.

Hello and goodbye

Funding for South Sudanese

News on Funding for South Sudanese Doctors & others undertaking Postgraduate Studies

Quiz on liver function tests

Quiz on liver function tests


Obituary: Dr. Ayul Deng Ajak

Obituary: Dr. Ayul Deng Ajak

Obituary: Professor Amos Boul Riak

Advert : Help to develop the role of Diabetes Nurse Specialist for South Sudan

Help to develop the role of Diabetes Nurse Specialist for South Sudan

Medair: providing life-saving services to the most vulnerable

“In this area, it’s hard to access healthcare. It’s a long walk to the clinic, which is especially difficult for the elderly and those seriously ill. During this time of the year, when it hasn’t rained a lot yet, it’s still feasible. However, when the heavy rains start, the roads will turn into mud pools and there will be water everywhere. It will be very hard to walk to the clinic. Also, sometimes there are drugs in the clinic, but sometimes there aren’t.”

Letter from Mrs Janet Michael

Letter from Mrs Janet Michael

Making Progress in Postgraduate Medical Education

As the new College of Physicians and Surgeons of South Sudan (CPSSS) continues to develop, links between the UK and the College have been further strengthened.

Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund: News from South Sudan.


The VISION 2020 LINKS Programme originated as part of the ‘VISION 2020 - The Right to Sight’ initiative established in 1999 by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Prevention of Blind-ness to eliminate avoidable blindness worldwide.

Quiz on infant feeding

Congratulations to Dr. Victor Vuni

SSMJ February 2016 - Resources

News from the Poole Africa Link

October 2015 saw a change in direction for Poole Africa Link (PAL). Due to the political situation in South Sudan, the scheduled trip was diverted to Lira, Northern Uganda where there is a referral 500-bed hospital, and several schools of nursing. The one we used as our base was at a new University outside town, which currently has three intakes of midwifery students, (about 150 students in total). Funding is from the African World Bank and the Government is very supportive.

‘Healthy communities through access to well-trained physicians’

Establishing the College of Physicians of East, Central and Southern Africa

MSF treats highest number of malaria patients in years in parts of South Sudan

The medical humanitarian organization, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), fears people living in some regions of South Sudan are facing one of their worst malaria seasons in years as exceptionally high numbers of patients are being treated for severe malaria in MSF medical facilities.


Dr Peter Newman appointed Royal College of Physicians Associate International Director for Sub-Saharan Africa

Dr Peter Newman has been appointed Royal College of Physicians London (RCP) Associate International Director for Sub-Saharan Africa.

Nutrition for Developing Countries – 3rd edition

Scientific writing for publication workshop in Juba

The South Sudan Medical Journal (SSMJ) organized a one-day scientific writing for publication workshop on Saturday, April 25 2015 at the Juba Grand Hotel in Juba, South Sudan. The workshop was attended by 26 medical professionals.

Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund

At its last meeting the Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF) awarded scholarships/grants to the following applicants from South Sudan and to organisations supporting students at universities in the Sudan.

Using e-learning to support the Basic Medical Training programme in South Sudan

This article summarises a meeting that was held in London to discuss ways in which the UK medical community, working through existing networks and/or the medical Royal Colleges, can continue to support medical education in South Sudan. In particular, the meeting focussed on the potential for the use of e-learning to enable continuing support during the current difficulties that are reducing the options for direct input.

Poole Africa Link Update April 2015

The link between Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Wau Teaching Hospital began in 2009, and since that time we have aimed to send teams of 4-6 health care professionals twice a year to teach doctors, nurses and midwives working in the hospital. In addition to this, we have organised a parallel teaching programme with student nurses and midwives in the local nurses’ training school

St Mary’s Hospital, Isle of Wight - Juba Teaching Hospital Link

The Link between St Mary’s Hospital (the main base of the Isle of Wight NHS Trust) and Juba Teaching Hospital was established in 2007 and gained charitable status in 2008. The population of South Sudan is 11.7 million and of the Isle of Wight is 140,500.

Winchester- Yei Link

The Link between Winchester and Eastleigh Healthcare NHS Trust and Yei Civil Hospital and Martha Clinic, and Yei National Health Training Institute has been established since November 2010. Since then our teams of nurses, midwives, doctors, physiotherapists, engineers and other colleagues have carried out multiple trips to Yei. The link has been successful in obtaining a number of grants from organisations such as the Tropical Health Education Trust. We were also successful in obtaining medical text books from British Medical Association for the hospital in Yei.

The road to St. James University Hospital, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom

“S/he who wants honey should be prepared for a bee-sting” is a common saying in Africa literally cautioning people of hurdles to be encountered along a journey towards a valuable set target. The higher that target is, the more hurdles one has to overcome. Now let’s talk about MTI and my experience (hurdles completed)…

Developing postgraduate medical education in South Sudan

The provision of healthcare in South Sudan is offered by a ‘mixed economy’ of public hospitals and clinics, private hospitals and clinics, international aid organisations, and traditional community practice. Yet for most of the 11.7 million population [1], the provision of both primary and secondary healthcare is wholly insufficient. 90% of women give birth without medically trained assistance [2]. There are 2054 maternal deaths per 100,000 live birth [3]. 68 out of every 1000 infants die within 12 months of their birth; 99 within five years [4]. Overall life expectancy is 55 years [5]. Put simply, the country does not have sufficient medical capacity to meet the need.

SSMJ 8.2 Notices


The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Medical Training Initiative enables medical graduates from all over the world to train in the UK for up to 24 months.

Feb 2015 Resources

Maternal and Newborn Life Saving Skills Course, Juba. November 2013

South Sudan has the unenviable reputation of having one of the worst rates of maternal deaths in the world. The challenge for everybody is to reduce this horrific loss of valuable lives and reduce the high levels of morbidity in mothers and the newborn. At least 80% of all maternal deaths result from five complications: hemorrhage, sepsis, eclampsia, obstructed labour and miscarriage (abortion). There are relatively inexpensive, effective, evidenced-based interventions for the management of these conditions which can be readily used in low resource regions with appropriate training of staff.

Book Review: ‘Primary Mother Care and Population’

"This book should be in every health unit in Africa", so said a highly critical and long experienced doctor and aid worker of an earlier edition. Its purpose is to stop mothers dying and to reduce Africa's maternal mortality.

The Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund

What is the GMCTF? The Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund ( was established in 1899 by public subscription to honour the name of General Charles George Gordon of the British army, who was killed during the Mahdi's uprising in 1885.

Notice: International English language Testing System (IELTS) – volunteer teachers wanted

Passing the IELTS Examination with a minimum of 7 scores out of 10 in the following domains:

Donated Books

Medicine in Africa book donated to the South Sudan Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Library

Obituary: Dr. Thomas Lul

Winchester- Yei Hospitals link

This article is an update about the partnership between Yei Civil Hospital (YCH) and the Martha Clinic in Yei, South Sudan with Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (HHFT), in particular the hospital in Winchester.

Letter to the Editor

Why the high mortality rate of mothers and babies will not end soon in South Sudan

Contemporary Psychiatry in Africa: A Review of Theory and Practice

This book harnesses the collective wisdom of African Psychiatry and therefore serves as a departure point for ongoing efforts to refine practice in accordance with the best practice and local needs.

SSMJ 6.4 - Resources

This issue - Maternal Health and Family Planning Infections Publications

Water water everywhere nor any drop to drink

Wide awake in the middle of the night, I switched on the radio: BBC World service. Someone was talking about South Sudan and the prevalence there of the water-borne disease, Guinea-Worm fever, one of the few countries in the world where the disease is endemic and, in South Sudan's case, the speaker explained, virulently so. The symptoms he described were obscene.

Resources for 6/3

These are grouped as: General Nutrition Infection

Letter to the Editor


Seasonal variation of the three leading diagnoses over fifty months at the Duk Lost Boys Clinic, South Sudan

The Duk Lost Boys Clinic, a Primary Health Care Clinic in Duk Payuel, is the only Duk County clinic in continuous operation during the study period, serving an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 South Sudanese in Jonglei State.

Doctors on Move: A South Sudan Team of Doctors working Free of charge for Rural Communities

Doctors On Move is a South Sudan indigenous non-profit, non- commercial and non-political organization founded in March 2012. The organization was registered ( 1710) and incorporated in accordance with the South Sudan NGOs act 2012 in March 2013. The Founders are South Sudanese health professionals and non-health professionals working in Gudele Medical and Surgical Home, a private hospital, and other institutions based in Juba, South Sudan.

The life of Professor Giuseppe Meo

Professor Meo graduated in Turin in 1962, and specialized in emergency and thoracic surgery. In 1968 he and his colleagues founded Comitato Collaborazione Medica (CCM), an NGO dedicated to health development in emerging countries

The potential of telemedicine in South Sudan

The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of telemedicine in South Sudan, as part of routine healthcare delivery.

Extract from: Report of a Visit to UK on Clinical Attachment at Poole Hospital and St Mary's Hospital, Isle Of Wight 6 October - 28 November 2012

I visited UK on a 7- week clinical attachment to Poole hospital, mainly working in the department of diagnostic imaging (Ultrasound). The grant for my visit was secured from Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF) with the help of Dr. Frankie Dormon, a Consultant Anaesthetist at Poole Hospital and the Medical Lead of Poole Africa link (which is the link with Wau hospital).


Unique Opportunity! Would you like to visit South Sudan to help train nurses and midwives? Experienced nurses and midwives needed to help with clinical teaching programe

SSMJ Vol 6_1 Extras

Resources Feb 2013

These are listed under: • General issues. • Child health and Nutrition. • HIV and other infections.

Training the Trainers Course on Postgraduate Medical Education

A three-day Training the Trainers Course (19th-21st November 2012) was organised in conjunction with the Ministry of Health (RoSS) and Dr Oromo, Consultant Pathologist in Juba and the Wessex Consortium as a starter towards the Basic Medical Training Programme. Tim Walsh led the team with Dr Rich Bregazzi, an Educationalist and Dr David Attwood, a Medical Registrar. There were 18 participants, who were Consultants in various specialties at Juba Teaching Hospital (see Figure 1).

A report and sequelae of a specialist volunteer physician

In 2006 volunteers were required for a USAID sponsored project under the Academy of Educational Development (AED).The aim was to transfer skills that would contribute to the reconstruction of Southern Sudan. I was privileged to take an assignment from 6 September to 21 October 2006. In a private voluntary capacity I returned for a month in 2010 and 2012, again to transfer skills, and so help in the reconstruction of the health sector. I worked in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH), the Juba Medical Complex and for local television and radio.


These are listed under: • Maternal, neonatal and child health • HIV/AIDS • Non-communicable diseases • Miscellaneous/New publications

The role of the research nurse

Although this article draws on the UK experience of the author and may not be of immediate application to South Sudan, the principles of Research Nursing can be adapted to developing countries. In time some South Sudanese nurses may want to be involved in research.


Notices for SSMJ November 2012

Letters to the Editor

a response to the article ‘Can primary health care staff be trained in basic life-saving surgery?'

Advert: Project Manager for the College of Physicians and Surgeons (CPS) of South Sudan

Applications are invited for the time limited post of a Project Manager to head the development of the proposed College of Physicians and Surgeons (CPS) of South Sudan. Ideally the candidate will be a senior South Sudan clinician, but applicants from any part of the world who are actively practising clinicians at consultant or specialist level and who have a postgraduate qualification in any clinical discipline may apply.

Three UK midwives go to Yei

The link between Winchester and Eastleigh Healthcare Trust and Yei Civil Hospital began with a visit in November 2010 to see how staff could work together. We were greatly helped by John and Poppy Spens who had been living in Yei and helping to run the Martha primary care clinic. After planning and preparation the second visit took place in October 2011.


Various Announcements. Click inside to see.

Implementing a Routine Health Management Information System in South Sudan

South Sudan has recently acquired statehood. Planning and management of the health care system, based on evidence, requires a constant flow of information from health services. The Division of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the Ministry of Health developed the framework for the health sector of the country in 2008. At that time data were collected through surveys and assessments.

How to get published

The purpose of this article is to guide you through the publication process from start to finish. It will help you to think about where to publish, and provide guidance on writing and submitting your article, and the peer review process.

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Juba, South Sudan

The purpose of this research is to identify and describe some serious cases of human rights violation taking place in Juba, South Sudan. These violations are specifically prostitution-related human trafficking and child labour. The study will expose the situation and advocate for action by all stakeholders concerned. Therefore, it is intended to serve as action research.

Registration with the Republic Of South Sudan Medical and Dental Council

With immediate effect, all Medical and Dental Practitioners wishing to work in the South Sudan in a hospital, community setting, a clinic or private set-up are required to register with the South Sudan Medical and Dental Council.

Free health education DVDs in Juba Arabic

Early in 2011, Martha PHCC, Yei (a PHCC with a mobile outreach) contacted Thare Machi, a charity that produces interactive health education DVDs for use in developing countries. The Yei team (Figure 1) translated and recorded six topics into Juba Arabic and sent them to UK where they were made into DVDs. These cover the following topics: You and your new baby, Safe water, Avoiding malaria, Bednets can save lives, Immunisation and Basic hygiene.

Boma Health Committees in Mayendit County

The Community Based Health Care Project in Mayendit County, Unity State, started with a pilot phase in 2008-2010 with a target population of 116,000 inhabitants. The overall objective was to improve access to quality basic health services for a rural population with a special focus on vulnerable groups. Included among the major activities was the establishment and training of Boma Health Committees (BHCs)

Community health education in rural Yei

“Prevention is better than cure” Erasmus said back in the 1400’s. Agreed… but practically prevention and cure should go hand in hand together. Martha Mobile Health Unit (linked with Martha Clinic PHCC Yei) does both. The goal and hope is that not only professional and affordable health care is given, but that through preventative health education, communities learn to prevent sicknesses. Together with Rev. Obadiah Batali and, later on Knight Rose, health education in the communities was our priority


The SSMJ team are pleased to welcome Dr Edward Eremugo Luka as the new Editor-in-Chief of this journal. The Republic of South Sudan Ministry of Health has appointed Dr Peter Newman, Consultant Neurologist, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, England, to the post of Honorary Director of Postgraduate Medical Education for South Sudan.

Appeal for cancer services in South Sudan

I am writing from the newly born country of South Sudan. I am a physician who has recently relocated here after 22 years in the UK. One huge problem that this new country faces is lack of facilities for the treatment of all types of cancers.

A note on the ‘Real Medicine Foundation'

The Real Medicine Foundation ( was founded in May 2005 inspired by lessons learned after working for months in the Asian Tsunami relief efforts. Real Medicine Foundation (RMF) provides humanitarian support to people living in disaster and poverty stricken areas, and continues to help communities long after the world’s spotlight has faded. We believe that ‘real’ medicine is focused on the person as a whole by providing medical/physical, emotional, economic and social support.

South Sudanese doctor receives PEPFAR award

The United States AIDS Program known as the ‘President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief’ (PEPFAR) has awarded the 2011 Lahya Shiimi Award to Dr Basilica Modi. This is the first time a South Sudanese has received this prestigious award “in recognition of the outstanding team work, leadership, dedication and critical contributions to ensuring the sustainability of the HIV/AIDS response in South Sudan”

"MGH - Harvard is committed to long term partnership with the government and people of South Sudan"

Dr Thomas Burke is Chief of the Division of Global Health and Human Rights at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), a Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, a faculty of the Committee on African Studies at Harvard University, and a physician at MGH and Children’s Hospital Boston. Since 2008, at the request of Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) and the World Bank, Dr. Burke has been working with the Ministry of Health (MOH) in the areas of maternal and child health and capacity building.

The Royal College written exams: How to pass and how to use the e-learning portal

The purpose of the e-learning portal is to assist trainees with their written exams. This portal will allow trainees to gain exclusive access to online companies such as and, which have online question banks containing thousands of mock questions. It is impossible to pass the written exams by reading text books only: the Royal Colleges ask certain questions that textbooks often fail to answer. The only way to pass is to answer at least 2,000 practice questions. When you get a question wrong, do not go to the next question. Look in a book, go online, and find out why you got the question wrong and why the right answer is the right answer. This is the only way to pass

Special Supplement: Development of Nursing and Midwifery Services in South Sudan

The following articles were prepared by the Ministry of Health and UNFPA . Strengthening nursing and midwifery in Southern Sudan: A key strategy for improving health care beyond independence. Country Context: Southern Sudan has been experiencing civil war for many years before the historic peace agreement reached in 2005 and the subsequent referendum in 2011. The successful outcome of the referendum has resulted in Southern Sudan preparing to celebrate independence in July 2011.


We at SSMJ would like to acknowledge the achievements and offer our heart-felt congratulations to the following: Dr Eluzai Abe Hakim, our UK-based editor, who has been appointed International Advisor to Royal College of Physicians representing South Sudan. International Advisors represent the College internationally and act as a point of contact between local Members and Fellows and the College. In addition...

A Snapshot of Southern Sudan around 2009 – How Much Have Things Changed?

The following material is reproduced with permission from “Situation Analysis of Nutrition in Southern Sudan: Analysis Based on June 2009 Assessment” by Mija-tesse Ververs for the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project (FANTA-2). See Table 1 page 6 “Selected Population Statistics in Southern Sudan” for full details and references.

Bor Medical Camp

In November 2010 I took part in a 7-day Regional Medical Camp in Bor town, South Sudan. This was the 4th medical camp organized by the University of Calgary as part of the SSHARE (Southern Sudan Healthcare Accessibility, Rehabilitation and Education) Project...

A new Link is born….between Winchester and Yei

On 7th November 2010 a group of clinicians set off from the Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, UK on a fact-finding visit to Yei in Southern Sudan. The purpose of this visit was to review healthcare there, specifically secondary care at Yei Civil Hospital, and to assess whether a ‘Link’ between Winchester and Eastleigh Healthcare NHS Trust (WEHCT) and Yei Civil Hospital would be mutually beneficial.

Redevelopment of the Martha PHCC Eye Clinic, Yei, Southern Sudan

The redevelopment of the Martha PHCC Eye Clinic took place during 2010. Figure 1 shows what the building looked like at the start of the year. It had been constructed as two wards for the former eye clinic, and was to have been operated by an NGO. However, it was never completed and for several years the empty building was used by youths for drug taking and graffiti, and to generally cause a nuisance to those who lived nearby.

Multi-Indicator Nutrition, Health, WASH and Mortality Cluster Survey: Twic County, Warrap State. 2010

Each year GOAL in South Sudan conducts a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) at their field sites in Twic County (Warrap State), Agok (Abyei) and Sobat (Ulang and Baliet Counties, Upper Nile State). These give comprehensive and representative data on many indicators including: nutritional status; mortality; morbidity in the last two weeks; immunisation coverage; child feeding practices; household food security; water; sanitation & hygiene; maternal and general health; malaria prevention; HIV/AIDS, and education.

Medical Elective in Juba Report

Every year, many medical students do four-week electives in foreign places as part of their medical training. My friend, Laura-Ann Lambert, and I are medical students from Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. We have just completed our electives in Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH), Southern Sudan. As two twenty-one year old female ‘Kawajas’, we were discouraged from taking our medical electives there. In western society, Sudan is still perceived as a dangerous place. Little did they know the wonderful teaching...

Personal patient-held 'health books' – Should Everyone Have One?

In this age of electronic media, here is an idea for South Sudan's health services. Massimo Serventi, a doctor with wide African experience and presently working in Darfur, suggests that everyone, especially children, should have and keep their own personal paper 'health book' – and keep it throughout life. The main aim being to improve the diagnostic orientation of health professionals.

Critical Thinking in Healthcare: Reflections on Southern Sudan

A Vietnamese proverb states, “The mouse does not know life until it has been into the mouth of the cat”. The Vietnamese practice the Buddhist religion and firmly believe in incarnation or rebirth after death. The Southern Sudanese healthcare system has already been 'into the mouth of the cat' during the liberation war. Those of us who remember the dilapidated state of the healthcare services before and during the war do not want to see a similar system reborn or 'know life'

Southern Sudan Doctor's Association

SOSDA Announces that the registration of new members, production of membership cards and updating of register of old members is now on!

News and Resources - November 2010

This section gives news from Southern Sudan and relevant clinical information from other journals and reports, and suggests materials that can be freely downloaded, and/or obtained in hard copy or on CD. Items are grouped under: Chronic diseases; HIV and other infections; Maternal, newborn and child health; Surgery; General resources.

Nursing and Midwifery in Southern Sudan - Undersubscribed in a High Demand Environment

The first ever College of Nursing and Midwifery in Southern Sudan has been established. This comes at a time when Southern Sudan is recovering from more than 20 years of civil war, which resulted in decay of the available infrastructure, human resources and systems in the health sector. As well as the lack of qualified personnel, the health care infrastructure including hospitals, primary health care centres and primary health care units also lay in total ruin.

Profiles of health-related organisations working in South Sudan: Medair and Merlin

We continue with our series of profiles of Non Governmental Organisations (both international and local) and other organisations working in health related fields in Southern Sudan. We hope this will help to publicise the valuable work these are doing, and allow people to make closer links with each other. In this issue we present the profiles of Medair and Merlin.

Profiles of health-related organisations working in Southern Sudan: Malaria Consortium and Population Services International Sudan

The Southern Sudan Medical Journal is planning to publish the profiles of Non Governmental Organisations (both international and local) and other organisations working in health related fields in Southern Sudan. We hope this will help to publicise the valuable work these are doing, and allow people to make closer links with each other. In this issue we are pleased to present the profiles of the Malaria Consortium and the Population Services International Sudan.

News and Reports from Southern Sudan - February 2010

WHO warns: Aid shortfall may leave millions sick and starving in Southern Sudan Data from: Weekly Epidemiology Bulletin Week 7-13 December 2009. Ministry of Health GoSS

News and Reports from Southern Sudan - November 2009

Developing Quality Primary Health Care in Yei, Southern Sudan - the challenges and successes

The Martha Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) originally started as a health unit in 1980. It was the idea of a school head mistress. It ceased to function during the war. The facility was re-developed in 2003 with a building funded by the Diocese of Salisbury (UK) and managed by the Diocese of Yei (Episcopal Church of Sudan ECS) The Diocese of Salisbury also funded the training of a nurse and a clinical officer...

Motorbike ambulances for safer childbirth

The Ministry of Health has introduced motorbike ambulances (5 scrambler motorbikes with sidecar "beds") to Eastern Equatoria region in a pilot scheme aimed at cutting the high rates of maternal mortality. "We have a problem bringing critically sick people to the few referral facilities available. We have in our budget this year at least one ambulance per county, but even that one ambulance will not be enough" said Atem Nathan Riek, Director-General of Primary Healthcare...

Tribute to Professor David Morely

What a man, what a friend of Africa and the developing world! Professor David Morley (CBE, MD, FRCP) the widely known and loved paediatrician, died on July 2nd aged 86. After working in Nigeria, where he promoted the Child Growth Chart, he was Lecturer and then Professor (and later Professor Emeritus) at the Institute of Child Health, London...

Interview with Agnes Comfort Daru, Country Coordinator, The Capacity Project about the Juba Teaching Hospital Resource Center

The Resource Center (RC) opened on May 17, 2008, and is housed at the Juba Teaching Hospital in the special wing. Based on the success of the Juba RC, the USAID Capacity Project is now in the process of opening the second RC at the Wau Teaching Hospital, in Western Bahr el-Ghazal. We procured a space for the second RC and recently completed the renovations. Francis Tombe, librarian for the Juba RC, will co-ordinate...

Southern Sudan Nutrition Health Convention

The Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS), Ministry of Health (MOH) Directorate of Nutrition (DN) hosted a Nutrition Health Convention in April 2009 in Juba. One hundred thirty-four participants attended, including representatives from the MOHs of nine states, teaching hospitals, UN agencies, NGOs and nutritionists from outside South Sudan. Its aims were to...

News and Reports from Southern Sudan - May 2009

Outbreak of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) in Northern Bahar El Ghazal State. Polio outbreak in Southern Sudan.

News and Reports from Southern Sudan - February 2009

On May 17, 2008, in Juba, 11 Sudanese-Canadian physicians were recognised for completing medical training and returning to Southern Sudan to practice. Few internationally educated physicians are prepared to return to a homeland as challenging as Southern Sudan

TALC is there to serve you

The NGO, Teaching-aids At Low Cost (TALC), has been providing learning material for health workers in less privileged countries for over 40 years. Starting with teaching slide sets and interactive scripts, it moved on to provide low cost books, accessories and more recently, free and low-priced CDs.

Mpower!…A Health Education Programme in Mundri

Mpower! is a collaborative project of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations-The Netherlands (IFMSA-The Netherlands) and the Mundri Relief and Development Association (MRDA). Mpower! is a ‘training of trainers’ project organized by Dutch medical students in close association with South Sudanese peers...

News and Reports from Southern Sudan - August 2008

Notice of another GOAL survey, GOAL, South Sudan carried out a multi indicator nutrition, health, water/sanitation and mortality survey along the Sobat Corridor in May 2008

Public Health and Health Policy in South Sudan

This article aimed to highlight the important of public health, and focus on legislative framework on water and sanitation as an approach to addressing some of the health challenges. This section of South Sudan Medical Journal is dedicated for articles on public health and health policy in South Sudan. As this is the only medical journal the South has ever launched, its vision should be holistic of improving health of the people of South Sudan and should include public health and health policy. It should inform the Ministry of Health, as the custodian of health of the people of South Sudan, in developing health policies. As the custodian of the nation health, the Ministry of Health, Government of South Sudan (GOSS) should address public health challenges.

Resources: Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition

-The first 1,000 days -A new injectable contraceptive -Child Health e-learning resources -Primary Mothercare and Population -State of the World’s Mothers -Family planning in The Lancet

Launch of the UK-South Sudan Alliance for Health Sector Development

Juba College of Nursing and Midwifery: Aspiring for Growth

Obituary: William Lual Gang

Establishing the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention: responding to Africa's health threats

In 2017, heads of states and governments of the African Union and the leadership of the African Union Commission officially launch the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

INTERVIEW: Volunteering in South Sudan: creating partnerships, making a difference

I spoke with Martin Michel, a general surgical registrar in Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, UK. In November 2017, he was part of a volunteer trip to Juba with St. Paul Medical Missions. I asked him about their experiences and what advice he would give to those considering volunteering in South Sudan. These excerpts have been edited for length and clarity.

Obituary: Dr Albino Mayom Kuel – the gift God sent to Italy

On Sunday 21 January 2018, Dr Albino Mayom Kuel, passed away after nearly 60 years of continuous living in Abio in the northern region of Torino, Italy.

News: SSMJ is now on the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

Yei River State hospital in need of an ambulance

An official in the ministry of health and environment in South Sudan’s Yei River state says they are in dire need of an ambulance to handle emergency cases from around the state.

Grant Awards for 2018/2019 to South Sudan Sudanese postgraduate students by the Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF), London.

At the annual meeting of the Executive Committee of the GMCTF on 19th April 2018, a number of South Sudanese applicants for grants to support postgraduate studies in various Universities were awarded. The Grants were varied in nature and included support with living expenses or full support with tuition fees and living expenses.

How to Assess for Bilateral Pitting Oedema

This guidance show you how to assess for bilateral pitting oedema in children.


The medical fraternity in South Sudan was hit very hard in August and October 2018 with the loss of four of its prominent members. These colleagues served the people and the country diligently.

Call for Submissions

SSMJ is making a call for submissions for a jumbo special issue of the journal dedicated to discussing all aspects of PHC.

Neonatal resuscitation chart

This chart is designed with the ‘Helping Babies Breath’ training in mind. However, it incorporates external cardiac massage, which can be effective in some cases.

SSDU Statement on the Killing of Dr Louis Edward Saleh

This is the statement from the South Sudan Doctors' Union condemning the brutal killing of Dr Louis Edward Saleh in Ganyiel, Panyijiar County of Unity State on 21 May 2021.

SSDU Statement on the Killing of Dr Dominic Pitia

This is the statement from the South Sudan Doctors' Union condemning the brutal killing of Dr Dominic Pitia in Akobo, Jonglei State, on 27 July 2021.

Medical Training Initiative (MTI) interviews for South Sudanese candidates

The Global Team at the Royal College of Physicians in London would like to host a half-day of virtual interviews for MTI applicants from South Sudan on 20th September, 10:00 – 13:00 South Sudan time (09:00-12:00 GMT). The timings mean that Team will be able to interview 4 candidates only. As this is a fairly small number of candidates, they can open applications for up for 1 week.

Obituary: Dr Pastore Alphonse Kwajok

Dr Pastore was a very outgoing person, a community organizer, the first president of the Equatoria South Sudanese Community in Iowa, and a loving and devoted father and husband. Family, relatives, and friends will greatly miss him.

Humanitarian and healthcare workers killed in South Sudan

In recent months, several humanitarian and healthcare workers have been threatened, beaten, arrested, detained, tortured and even killed in several parts of South Sudan. The South Sudan Doctors’ Union has condemned these acts and called on the government to protect healthcare workers, investigate these incidences and bring the perpetrators to book. SSMJ remembers some of the health workers killed or found dead in their duty stations below.

MSF Report on South Sudan

MSF report on South Sudan’s first decade of independence

Kwashiorkor – ‘revisiting the evidence’

Kwashiorkor malnutrition affects hundreds of thousands of children and kills tens of thousands each year. Although recognized as a unique form of malnutrition since the 1930s, its etiology is still unclear.


SUBMISSION ON THE HEALTH SECTOR BUDGET ALLOCATION: To the Committee on Finance & Economic Planning, National Legislative Assembly And Health & Populations Committee, National Legislative Assembly, with Copies to Office of the Vice President for Services Cluster, and the Ministry of Health Juba, 21 July 2023

Letter to the editor: Harmful traditional practice – Infant Oral Mutilation

Letter to the editor - Harmful traditional practice – Infant Oral Mutilation

Obituary: Dr Bashir Aggrey Abbas Meseka

Dr Bashir Aggrey Abbas Meseka

Obituary: Dr Peter Lado Aggrey Jaden

Dr Peter Lado Aggrey Jaden

Applications for postgraduate Training Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF)

Applications for postgraduate Training Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF)

Reflections on a clinical observership in London: Lessons and impact on medical training

Medicine is a dynamic profession, and international exposure and collaborations are essential for professional growth and the advancement of healthcare practices. Clinical observerships serve as invaluable opportunities for medical professionals to gain first-hand experience in diverse healthcare settings. In this reflective piece, I provide a detailed account of a clinical observership experience in London, exploring its impact on my personal and professional development, and advocating for similar opportunities for doctors, particularly those in South Sudan.

University of Juba launches a Master of Medicine in Paediatrics and Child Health

The Vice Chancellor of the University of Juba launched a three-year Master of Medicine (MMed) programme in Paediatrics and Child Health in the School of Medicine. The first batch of seven students includes five females and two males.

Dr. Bushra Ibnauf Center for Learning in Juba, South Sudan: Vision and mission

In partnership with the South Sudan Ministry of Health, SAMA is working towards launching Infectious Disease ECHO in July 2024 that will connect medical professionals in South Sudan and Sudan with experts in Hepatitis B, HIV and TB, sharing experiences in an interactive “All Teach, All Learn” approach. Learners will attend the teachings at the planned Bushra Ibnauf Center for Learning in Juba as well as the Bushra Ibnauf Center for Learning in Port Sudan.

Call for Papers: South Sudan Orthopaedics and Trauma Society Conference

Call for Papers: South Sudan Orthopaedics and Trauma Society Conference